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C. Rabenhaupt, Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, 45 vols, 1900-10

H. Raikes (ed.), ‘Memoir of the life and services of Vice-Admiral Sir Jahleel Brenton, Baronet, K.C.B.’, The Quarterly Review, 79, no. 158, 1846, pp. 273-310

E.H. Ramsden, ‘The Sandby brothers in London’, The Burlington Magazine for Connoisseurs, 89, no. 526, 1947, pp. 15-19

W. Ravenhill, ‘The Honourable Robert Edward Clifford, 1767-1817: A cartographer’s response to Napoleon’, Geographical Journal, 160, no. 2, 1994, pp. 159-72

J. Raymond, Henry VIII’s Military Revolution: The Armies of Sixteenth-Century Britain and Europe, London 2007

S.W. Reed and R. Wallace, Italian Etchers of the Renaissance and Baroque, Boston 1989

Relation veritable de ce qui s’est passe en l’Armée du Roy, commandée par M. le Duc de Beaufort, depuis son arrivée à Port-Mahon, jusques à la descente qu’elle a fait à Gigiry en Africa, Haarlem 1664

T. Renaudot, Table ou abrégé des cent trente-cinq volumes de la Gazette de France, Depuis son commencement en 1631 jusqu’à la fine de l’année 1765, vol. 1, Paris 1766

J. Rennell, The marches of the British armies in the peninsula of India, during the campaigns of 1790 and 1791; illustrated and explained by reference to a map, Compiled from Authentic Documents, Transmitted by Early Cornwallis from India, London 1792

D.K. Richter, ‘Johnson, Sir William, first baronet (1715?–1774)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, 2004

G.S. Ritchie, ‘Vidal, Alexander Thomas Emeric (1792–1863)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, 2004

J.R. von Rittersberg, Biographien der ausgezeichnetetesten Feldherren der k.k. oesterreichischen Armee, Prague 1828

A.P.F. Robert-Dumesnil, Le peintre-graveur français, 11 vols, Paris 1835-71

J. Roberts, Royal Landscape: The Gardens and Parks of Windsor, New Haven and London 1997

J. Roberts, ‘George III’s acquisitions on the Continent’, The Wisdom of George the Third, London 2005, pp. 101-20

R.A. Roberts (ed.), British History Online: Calendar of the Cecil Papers in Hatfield House, vol. 12, 1602-3, pp. 252-76

N.A.M. Rodger, The Command of the Ocean: A Naval History of Britain 1649-1815, London 2004

H. de Rohan, Memoires du Duc de Rohan, Sur les choses qui sont passés en France depuis la mort de Henri le Grand jusqu’à la Paix faite avec les Réformés, au mois de Juin mil six cent vingt-neuf, pt 1, Amsterdam 1706

R. Rolt, Memoirs of the Life of James Lindesay, Earl of Craufurd and Lindesay, London 1753

G.L. le Rouge, Journal du Camp de Compiegne de 1739, augmenté des Épreuves des Mines faites en présence du Roi, Par MM. de Turmel et Antoniazzi, Capitaines Mineurs, rédigé dur les lieux par ordre de M. Dangervillers, Ministre de la Guerre, Paris 1761

The Royal Military Calendar, or Army Service and Commission Book, 3rd edn, London 1820

J.C. Rule, ‘Jean-Frédéric Phélypeaux, comte de Pontchartrain et Maurepas: reflections on his life and his papers’, Louisiana History: The Journal of the Louisiana Historical Association, 6, no. 4, 1965, pp. 365-77

A. Russett, Dominic Serres R.A. 1719-1793: War Artist to the Navy, Woodbridge 2001

A.B. Sainsbury, ‘Duckworth, Sir John Thomas, first baronet (1748–1817)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, 2004

A.B. Sainsbury, ‘Saumarez, James, first Baron de Saumarez (1757–1836)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, 2004

G. Sale et al., An universal history: from the earliest accounts to the present time, vol. 30, Virginia 1761

D. Salmon, ‘The French invasion of Pembrokeshire in 1797: official documents, contemporary letters, and early narratives’, West Wales Historical Records, 14, 1929, pp. 129-206

A. Saltini, L’assedio della Mirandola, Parma 2003

F.B. Salvadori, ‘Carte, piante e stampe storiche delle raccolte Lafreriane della Bibliotea nazionale di Firenze’, Indici e Cataloghi, 11, 1980, p. 105

E.W.C. Sandes, The Military Engineer in India, 2 vols, Chatham 1933

A. Saunders, Fortress Builder: Bernard de Gomme, Charles II’s Military Engineer, Exeter 2004

R. Savory, His Britannic Majesty’s Army in Germany during the Seven Years War, Oxford 1966

E. Sawyer, Memorials of Affairs of State in the Reigns of Q. Elizabeth and K. James I, vol. 1, London 1725

G. Schilder, Mappae Antiquae: Liber Amicorum Günter Schilder, 2 vols, Leiden 2007

F. Schiller, The History of the Thirty Years War in Germany, Captain Blaquiere (trans.), Frankfurt am Main 1842

H.M. Scott, ‘Cathcart, Charles Schaw, ninth Lord Cathcart (1721–1776)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, 2004

J. de Serres, Suite du veritable Inventaire de L’histoire de France, pt 4, Rouen 1760

M. Serruys, ‘Oostende en de Generale Indische Compagnie. De opbloei en neergang van een koloniale handelshaven (1713-1740)’, Tijdschrift voor Zeegeschiedenis, 24, no. 1, 2005, pp. 43-59

A.M. de Servin d’Héricourt, Les siéges d’Arras, histoire des expéditions militaires dont cette ville et son territoire ont été le théâtre, Arras 1844

K.M. Setton, The Papacy and the Levant, 1204-1571, Philadelphia 1984

K.M. Setton, ‘Venice, Austria, and the Turks in the seventeenth century’, American Philosophical Society, 192, 1991, p. 6

R. Sharp, ‘Drapentier, Jan (fl.1674–1713)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, 2004

S.J. Shaw, History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey. Vol. 1: Empire of the Gazis. The Rise and Decline of the Ottoman Empire 1280-1808, Cambridge 1976

D. Shawe-Taylor (ed.), The First Georgians: Art & Monarchy 1714-1760, London 2014

C. Shephard, An historical account of the island of Saint Vincent, London 1831

N. Shipton, ‘General Murray’s map of the St. Lawrence’, The Cartographer, 4, 1967, p. 98

R. Shirley, Printed Maps of the British Isles 1650-1750, Tring 1988

R. Shirley, Maps in the Atlases of the British Library: A Descriptive Catalogue, c.AD 850-1800, 2 vols, London 2004

J.G. Simms, ‘Schomberg at Dundalk, 1689’, Irish Sword, 10, no. 38, 1971, pp. 17-19

A.E.C. Simoni, The Ostend story: early tales of the great siege and the mediating role of Henrick van Haestens, ’t Goy and Houten 2003

F.H. Skrine, Fontenoy and Great Britain’s share in the War of the Austrian Succession 1741-1748, Edinburgh and London 1906

S. Sloman, ‘Pine, John (1690–1756)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, 2004

G.J. van der Sman, ‘Print publishing in Venice in the second half of the sixteenth century’, Print Quarterly, 17, no. 3, 2000, pp. 235-47

S. Smiles, Flight and the Artistic Imagination, Compton Verney 2012

E.A. Smith, ‘Grey, Charles, second Earl Grey (1764–1845)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, 2004

W.A. Speck, The Butcher: The Duke of Cumberland and the Suppression of the ’45, Oxford 1981

J.W. Spurr, ‘Yeo, Sir James Lucas’, Dictionary of Canadian Biography, 1983

R.T. Stearn, ‘Congreve, Sir William, second baronet (1772–1828)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, 2004

H.M. Stephens, rev. G.J. Bryant, ‘Barker, Sir Robert, baronet (c. 1732-1789)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, 2004

H.M. Stephens, rev. R.T. Stearn, ‘Campbell, Colin (1754–1814)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, 2004

H.M. Stephens, rev. R.T. Stearn, ‘Erskine, Sir William, second baronet (1770–1813)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, 2004

H.N. Stevens and R. Tree, ‘Comparative cartography exemplified in an analytical & bibliographical description of nearly one hundred maps and charts of the American continent published in Great Britain during the years 1600 to 1850’, Essays Honoring Lawrence C. Wroth, Portland 1951 (reprinted with addenda as Map Collectors’ Series no. 39, London 1967)

D. Stevenson, ‘Leslie, Alexander, first earl of Leven (c.1580–1661)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, 2004

A.D. Stijnman, Engraving and Etching 1400-2000: A History of the Development of Manual Intaglio Printmaking Processes, Houten 2012

I.N.P. Stokes, The iconography of Manhattan Island, 1498-1909. Compiled from original sources and illustrated by photointaglio reproductions of important maps, plans, views, and documents in public and private collections, 6 vols, New York 1915-28

I.N.P. Stokes and D.C. Haskell, American historical prints, early views of American cities, etc., New York 1932

E. Stuart, Lost Landscapes of Plymouth: Maps, Charts and Plans to 1800, Stroud 1991

P. Sumner, ‘Uniforms and equipment of cavalry regiments, from 1685 to 1811’, Journal of the Society for Army Historical Research, 13, no. 50, 1934, pp. 82-106

P. Sumner, ‘Military pictures and prints at Windsor Castle’, Journal of the Society for Army Historical Research, 16, no. 62, 1937, pp. 87-100

J. Sweetman, ‘Brock, Sir Isaac (1769–1812)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, 2004

D. Syrett, ‘The British landing at Havana: An example of an eighteenth-century combined operation’, Mariner’s Mirror, 55, 1969, pp. 325-31

D. Syrett (ed.), ‘The siege and capture of Havana 1762’, Publications of the Navy Records Society, 114, 1970

L. Tedeschi, ‘Natale Bonifacio, illustratore del Pigafetta’, Critica d’Arte, 7, no. 9/10, 1992, pp. 119-31

L. Tedoldi, ‘Tra immigrazione e integrazione sociale. La cittadinanza “creata” a Brescia in età Veneta’, Società e Storia, 93, 2001, p. 24

G.L. Teffeteller, ‘Beresford, William Carr, Viscount Beresford (1768–1854)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, 2004

N. Ten Hove, Memoirs of the House of Medici, vol. 2, London 1797

A. Terry-Fritsch and E.F. Labbie (eds), Beholding Violence in Medieval and Early Modern Europe, Farnham 2012

U. Thieme and F. Becker, Allgemeines Lexikon der Bildenden Künstler von der Antike bis zur Gegenwart, vol. 6, Leipzig 1955

S. Thion, French Armies of the Thirty Years’ War, Havertown 2013

R.N.W. Thomas, ‘Pulteney, Sir James Murray-, seventh baronet (c.1755-1811)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, 2004

A.C. Thompson, Britain, Hanover and the Protestant Interest, 1688-1756, Woodbridge 2006

A.C. Thompson, George II: King and Elector, London and New Haven 2011

R. Thorne, ‘Yorke, Charles Philip (1764–1834)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, 2004

M. Toksöz and B. Kolluoglu (eds), Cities of the Mediterranean: From the Ottomans to the Present Day, London and New York 2010

G. Tolias, ‘Isolarii, fifteenth to seventeenth century’, History of Cartography, vol. 3, pt 1, 2007, p. 273

R.V. Tooley, ‘Maps in Italian atlases of the sixteenth century, being a comparative list of the Italian maps issued by Lafreri, Forlani, Duchetti, Bertelli and others, found in atlases’, Imago Mundi, 3, 1939, pp. 12-47

J.D. Tracy, Emperor Charles V, Impresario of War: Campaign Strategy, International Finance, and Domestic Politics, Cambridge 2002

S.C. Tucker (ed.), A Global Chronology of Conflict: From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle East, 6 vols, Santa Barbara 2010

W.B. Turnbull (ed.), ‘Mary: January 1557’, ‘Calendar of State Papers Foreign, Mary: 1553–1558, 1861, pp. 281-7 [accessed 23 Jan. 2020]

W.B. Turnbull (ed.), ‘Mary: January 1558’, ‘Calendar of State Papers Foreign, Mary: 1553-1558’, 1861, pp. 354-63 [accessed 23 Jan. 2020]

R. Tyler (ed.), ‘Spain: January 1558, 1-15’, ‘Calendar of State Papers, Spain, Volume 13: 1554–1558’, 1954, pp. 321-33 [accessed 23 Jan. 2020]

US Department of the Navy, Naval History and Heritage Command: selected naval documents. USS Constitution, ‘Journal of Commodore William Bainbridge’, American National Archives, Record Group 45, Captain’s Letters, 1813, vol. 1, no. 8 1/2, and TNA, ADM/1/5435

A. Ventura, ‘Barbarigo, Pietro’Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani, vol. 6, 1964 [accessed 22 Jan. 2020]

C. Verner, ‘Maps of the Yorktown Campaign, 1780-81: a preliminary check list of printed and manuscript maps prior to 1800’, Map Collectors’ Circle, London 1965

R.H. Vetch, rev. W. Johnson, ‘Green, Sir William, first baronet (1725–1811)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, 2004

R.H. Vetch, rev. J. Spain, ‘Morrison, George (1703/4?–1799)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, 2004

H. Vibart, The military history of the Madras engineers and pioneers, from 1743 up to the present time, London 1881

A.O. Vietor, ‘The Bauman map of the siege of Yorktown’, Yale University Library Gazette, 21, 1946, pp. 15-17

M.A.C. de Villèle, ‘Les Naudin et la cartographie militaire française de 1688 à 1744’, L’œil du cartographie et la representation geographique du Moyen Age a nos jours, Paris 1995

Voltaire, The Age of Louis XIV, M.P. Pollack (trans.) and F.C. Green (ed.), London 1926

M. de Vrij-Donkersloot, ‘Topografische kaarten van Nederland uit de 16de tot en met de 19de eeuw. Typologie en inventarisatie’, Archives et Bibliothèques de Belgique, 53, pts 1-4, 1982, pp. 52-84

J. van der Waals, Prenten in de Gouden Eeuw: van kunst tot kastpapier, Rotterdam 2006, pp. 112-13, cat. no. 158

P.E. Wagner, Les Naudin entre Meuse et Vosges, Metz 2003

A.W. Ward (ed.), The Cambridge Modern History, vol. 6, Cambridge 1934, p. 308

T. Wareham, ‘Faulknor, Robert (1763–1795)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, 2004

P. Wauchope, ‘Hamilton, Richard (d.1717)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, 2004

S.S. Webb, Lord Churchill’s Coup: The Anglo-American Empire and the Glorious Revolution Reconsidered, Syracuse 1998

M. Weygand, Turenne Marshal of France, London 1930

J.C. Wheat and C.F. Brun, Maps and Charts Published in America before 1800: A Bibliography, New Haven 1969

A. Wheatcroft, The Enemy at the Gate: Habsburgs, Ottomans and the Battle for Europe, London and New York 2009

R. Whitworth, William Augustus Duke of Cumberland: A Life, London 1992

M.E. Wiesener-Hanks, Early Modern Europe, 1450-1789, Cambridge 2006

K. Wiggins, Anatomy of a Siege: King John’s Castle, Limerick, 1642, vol. 1, Woodbridge 2001

C.D. Williams, ‘Johnson, Alexander (bap. 1716, d. 1799)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, 2004

P.H. Wilson, Europe’s Tragedy: A New History of the Thirty Years War, London 2010

R.T. Wilson, History of the British Expedition to Egypt; to which is subjoined, a Sketch of the Present State of that Country and its Means of Defence. Illustrated with Maps, vol. 1, 4th edn, London 1803

T. Wilson, Flags at Sea, London 1999

W.J. Wilson, History of the Madras Army, 4 vols, Madras 1882-9

D.G. Wing (ed.), Short-title catalogue of books printed in England, Scotland, Ireland, Wales, and British America and of English books printed in other countries, 1641-1700, New York 1945-51

S.H. Winter, ‘Shiite emirs and Ottoman authorities’, Archivum Ottomanicum, 18, 2000, pp. 222-3

C.L.C.E. Witcombe, Copyright in the Renaissance: Prints and the Privilegio in Sixteenth-Century Venice and Rome, Leiden 2004

N. De Wolf and P. De Maeyer, ‘Italian composite atlases and a Belgian undescribed copy’, Cartographic Journal, 4, no. 4, 2008, pp. 296-303

P. Woodfine, ‘Robinson, Thomas, first Baron Grantham (1695–1770)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, 2004

D. Woodward, ‘The maps and prints of Paolo Forlani, a descriptive bibliography’, The Hermon Dunlop Smith Centre for the History of Cartography Occasional Publication 4, Chicago 1990

D. Woodward, ‘The evidence of offsets in renaissance Italian maps and prints’, Print Quarterly, 8, no. 3, 1991, pp. 235-51

D. Woodward, ‘Paolo Forlani; compiler, engraver, printer or publisher?’, Imago Mundi, 44, 1992, pp. 45-64

D. Woodward, Catalogue of Watermarks in Italian Printed Maps ca 1540-1600, Chicago 1996

D. Woodward, ‘The Italian map trade, 1480-1650’, History of Cartography, vol. 3, pt 1, 2007, pp. 773-98

L. Worms and A. Baynton-Williams, British Map Engravers: A Dictionary of Engravers, Lithographers and their Principal Employers to 1850, London 2011

D. Worthington, Scots in Habsburg Service: 1618-1648, Leiden 2004

D. Worthington, British and Irish Experiences and Impressions of Central Europe, c.1560-1688, Farnham 2013

H. Yates, Lord Effingham and the Spanish Armada, London 1919