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The wars of 1735–9, 1768–74 and 1787–92

? John Lindsay, 20th Earl of Crawford (1702-49)

Battle of Krotska, 1739

Plan of the Battle of Krotska In the Year 1739 1739 or later

Pencil, ink, grey wash and watercolour; four maps and two orders of battle drawn on three sheets of paper, previously joined | Scale: not stated | RCIN 728020

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Maps of the Battle of Krotska (also known as Krotzka, or the Battle of Grocka) was fought on 22 July 1739 between the Austrian army, commanded by Field Marshal George Olivier, Count of Wallis (1671-1743) and General Count Wilhelm Reinhard von Neipperg (1684-1774), and the Ottoman army, commanded by Grand Vizier Ivaz Mehmet Pasha (d.1743), resulting in a Turkish victory. Russo-Turkish War (1735-9).

The author of this map was severely wounded in this battle. The wound never healed properly and caused his death, ten years later, in 1749.

A manuscript journal of Crawford's experiences in the Russo-Turkish War of 1736-9 is preserved in the American Philosophical Society: Journal of a voyage from the Thames to Russia and of campaigning with the Russian army, 1738-1739. 1738-1739. 2 volumes, 438 p. Mss.947.L64 (last accessed 30 June 2016). According to the APS catalogue ‘The maps in the volume were drawn by Henry Kopp, secretary and draughtsman for Lord Crawford. They are inscribed to George II, king of England; Lord Loudoun, etc. The actual dates on which the maps were drawn is conjectural. These volumes were most probably prepared for Earl Crawford between 1743 and 1747 so they could be better seen and studied in the family's muniment room. Purchased from the library of Benjamin Franklin, 1803. John Lindsay, earl of Crawford and Lindsay (1702-1749), was a soldier. A Scotsman, he fought all over Europe. He was a captain in the British army and was permitted to join the Imperial army under Prince Eugene. In 1738 he received the rank of general from the Czarina Anna and fought against the Turks. He returned to the imperial forces and continued to fight until the Peace of London of 1748’ [presumably the Treaty of Aix la Chapelle 1748.].

The list of maps drawn by Kopp which accompany the journal includes one of the Battle of Krotska but the measurements show that it is smaller than RCIN 728020. The journal and maps were reproduced in a volume by Richard Rolt, published in London in 1753, entitled Memoirs of the life of James Lindesay, Earl of Craufurd and Lindesay. Another copy of this map, in a different hand, is preserved in HStAM Karten WHK 20/37 (Wilhelmshöher Kriegskarten in the Staatsarchivs Marburg) (last accessed 30 June 2016).

  • ? John Lindsay, 20th Earl of Crawford (1702-49) (cartographer)

    George II, King of Great Britain (1683-1760) (dedicatee)

  • Watermark: Strasburg bend and lily; countermark: IV

    Mark, stamped: 264

    Condition: five fold lines; some brown stains; slight surface dirt; the coat of arms in the title cartouche is pasted on top of an earlier, perhaps less accomplished version. Verso: three old repairs to old tears; heavy surface dirt along left edge, consistent with the map having been rolled and tied, perhaps inside another map

  • Scale: not stated

    56.5 x 135.5 cm (image)

    56.5 x 136.5 cm (sheet)

    31.1 x 103.6 cm (neatline of first map, top)

    22.7 x 34.3 cm (neatline of second map, bottom left)

    22.7 x 34.2 cm (neatline of third map, bottom centre)

    22.8 x 34.1 cm (neatline of fourth map, bottom right)

    20.9 x 30.5 cm (neatline of order of battle, top right)

    22.4 x 30.4 cm (neatline of order of battle, bottom right)

  • Manuscript title:

    Plan of the Battle of Krotska In the Year 1739 [top right, in rectangular panel, below the coat of arms of George II flanked by scenes from the Turkish and Russian armies]

    Manuscript title:

    Prospect & March / of the Roman Imperial / Army from the Camp of / Winska to Krotska & its / first renconter the Enemy / ab.t 3. of the clock in ye morn:g / on the of July 1739. [first map, top]

    Manuscript title:

    Situation & Prospect / of the Roman Imper: & Turkish / Armys about seven of the clock / in the morning when nothing / more then the avant-guard was / engagede. [second map, bottom left]

    Manuscript title:

    Situation & Prospect / of the Roman Imperial, and / Turkish Armys through out the / rest of the day from about eleven / of the clock till teen at Night, that / the Roman Imperial Army retir'd / as describ'd in the Journal. [third map, bottom centre]

    Manuscript title:

    Prospect / of the Roman Imper: Army / as it might have been form'd / on a junction of Neibergs / Corp with it, during the Night / betwixt the & 23. in order / so to have given the Turks / Battle the in place of retireing / the in the Night. [fourth map, bottom, right of centre]

    Manuscript title:

    Order of Battle / of his Roman Imperial Majestys Army in Hungary in the Year 1739. [top right, below title]

    Manuscript title:

    Order of Battle / of his Roman Imperial Majestys Troopes that had winter'd in the Banat of Temesvar in the year 1739. [bottom right, below first order of battle]


    Most Humbly Dedicated / To His Majesty George the 2.d King of Great Brittain, France, & Irland, &.c &.c &.c / By A most Devoted Servant C [space] d. [i.e. John Lindsay, 20th Earl of Crawford]. [top right, following on from title, in title panel]


    Battle of Krotska 22 July 1739, and Orders of Battle in 1739.

    Other annotations: (Recto) none. (Verso) [bottom, right of old heading, red pencil, cropped:] 7/[?]; [bottom, right of old heading, black pencil, cropped:] VIII/[?]; [top, centre, black pencil, cropped:] 1739.

    George III catalogue entry:

    Order of Battle Prospect of the March of the Imperial Army from the Camp of Winscha to Krotska and its first rencounter with the enemy at 3 o'clock in the morning of the 22.d of July 1739. Situation of the Imperial and Turkish Armies at 7 o’clock in the morning. Situation of the Imperial and Turkish Armies throughout the rest of the day. Prospect of the Imperial Army as it might have been formed in the night in order to have given the Turks Battle on the 23.d Order of Battle of the Imperial Army under Marshal Wallis in Hungary in 1739. Order of Battle of the Imperial Army under General Neuperg in 1739: by C ..........d (the Earl of Craufurd?) 3 sheets. MS [The same entry occurs under the heading Krotska]

  • Probably presented by the author to George II (1683-1760); subsequently probably acquired by Prince William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland (1721-65), third son of George II, and then acquired by George III (1738-1820)

  • Subject(s)

    Grocka, Central Serbia, Serbia (44°40'20"N 20°43'03"E)

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