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Contemporary prints and maps of the battles and sieges of the Eighty Years War

Claes Jansz Visscher II (c.1587-1652)

Siege of Schenkenschanz, 1635

De Ghelegentheyt ende Belegheringhe / van / SCHENCKEN-SCHANS / Curyeus gemeeten ende g[e]teeckent by den / ervaren Ingenieur Ioannes Iacobi Schort / Anno 1635 1635 or later

Etching and engraving; printed from three copperplates on three sheets of paper, joined; mounted on paper (mount cropped, Type A) | Scale: 1:10,300 approx. | RCIN 722093.a

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A map describing the Dutch siege of the Spanish-held fortress of Schenkenschanz between 2 August and 5 December 1635, begun by Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange (29 January 1584-14 March 1647) and carried on by his cousin, John Maurice, Prince of Nassau-Siegen (17 June 1604-20 December 1679). Eighty Years War (1568-1648). Oriented with south-west to top.

This detailed topographical map shows the distribution and disposition of the Dutch and Spanish armies, the roads and terrain in which they were encamped. The quarters of Prince Frederick Henry of Orange, at the beginning of the siege, are shown at Pannerden (in Gelderland 51°53ʹ27ʺN 06°02ʹ20ʺE); those of William of Nassau (probably William of Nassau-Hilchenbach 13 August 1592-18 July 1642) are at Tolhuis (probably Tolkammer 51°51ʹ18ʺN 06°06ʹ10ʺE).

The map extends from Griet Huysen (the name is now preserved in the 'Griethauser Altrhein') and Rÿnderen (Rindern 51°48ʹ38ʺN 06°07ʹ30ʺE) in the east to Hulhuysen (Hulhuizen 51°52ʹ45ʺN 05°59ʹ20ʺE) in the west. The meeting of the roads at Keecken (Kekerdom 51°51ʹ51ʺN 06°00ʹ30ʺE) is shown at the top centre of the map.

This is the first state of this map and is not recorded in Campbell (1968). The view of the fort was engraved on a separate copperplate and led an independent life, being published separately as well as being printed on the same sheet as four other views of the Toll House, House Hal. Christina Fort and the vilage of Griethausen. This sheet was published by Blaeu in his Novum Ac Magnum Theatrum urbium Belgicae Liberal Ac Foederatae in 1649. A close copy of the left sheet of this map, with the additions to 1636 and with the view engraved top right, was published in Merian's Theatrum Europaeum in 1639 between pages 572 and 573.

The accompanying letterpress text, which gives the historical background of Schenkenschanz and an account of the taking of the fort by the Spanish and the subsequent siege by the Dutch between 2 August and 5 December 1635 is at RCIN 722093.b-e.

The inset, bottom right is surmounted by the artefacts of war with, at the centre, an olive wreath containing the coats of arms, top left, of Spain, top right: the Lion of the Dutch Republic and, bottom left, the arms of   Frederick Henry of Nassau, Prince of Orange (1584-1647).

  • Claes Jansz Visscher II (c.1587-1652) (engraver and publisher) [bottom right of inset:] CJVisscher fecit et excude; [bottom left, inside neatline:] CJVisscher excudebat

    Johannes Jacobus Schort (active 1635-6) (surveyor)

  • Watermark: None visible

    Condition: two fold lines; creased; brown discolouration to both sides. Verso: repairs to small tears made possibly at the time of mounting; water-staining along vertical fold line; some offsetting from image of left plate; some pressure marks

  • Scale: 1:10,300 approx. Rynlantsche Roeden de 2000 maecken een gemene myl van i5 in een graet. Verges de Rinlande, 2000 en un Lieu de 15 en un degree. [109 mm =] 300.

    45.9 x 98.9 cm (image and sheet)

    cropped (platemark)

    47.5 x 99.0 cm (mount)

  • Printed title:

    De Ghelegentheyt ende Belegheringhe / van / SCHENCKEN-SCHANS / Curyeus gemeeten ende g[e]teeckent by den / ervaren Ingenieur Ioannes Iacobi Schort / Anno 1635. [top left, in cartouche representing a banner]

    Inset:

    [bottom right, a view taken from the Rhine of the fort:] SCHENCKENSCHANS [The inset is surmounted by the artefacts of war with, at the centre, an olive wreath containing the coats of arms, top left, of Spain, top right: the Lion of the Dutch Republic and, bottom left, the arms of Frederick Henry of Nassau, Prince of Orange. A banner weaves through the design bearing the words:] SOO DE HERE DE STADT NIET EN BEWAERT / SOO WAECKEN DE WACHTERS TE VERGEEFS Psalm 127. Size: 17.6 x 41.5 cm (neatline).

    Additional text:

    [top left, in ornamental cartouche, a key, 1-25:] Verklaringe der getalen

    Annotations:

    George III heading: Schenken-schantz 1635.

    Other annotations: none.

    George III catalogue entry:

    Schenken-schantz Carte de la situation du Fort de Schenck et des nouveaux Forts qui sont aux Environs, avec l’Assiegement par le Prince d’Orange en 1635: par I.I. Schort Ing.r 1635. 2 feuilles: avec une Vue du Fort par C.I. Visscher, et un Journal du Siege.

  • From the collection of Cassiano dal Pozzo (1588-22 October 1657); inherited by his brother, Carlo Antonio dal Pozzo (1606-1689); sold by Carlo Antonio’s grandson to Clement XI, 1703; acquired by Cardinal Alessandro Albani by 1714, from whom purchased by George III in 1762

  • Subject(s)

    Schenkenschanz, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany (51°50ʹ09ʺN 06°06ʹ37ʺE)

  • Bibliographic reference(s)

    M. McDonald, The Print Collection of Cassiano dal Pozzo. Part II, Architecture, Topography and Military Maps, 3 vols, London 2019, cat. no. 2974

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